Far and away, the best local resource for fishing information in Philadelphia is the Philadelphia Anglers Club run by Louis Cook and Matt Coll.
For information about how to get a license (and you should absolutely get a license!), the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission is the place to do it. You can pay for it and print directly from your computer. You can also find out more about the variety of species in Philadelphia’s waterways, including health guidelines for which fish are safe to eat, and at what frequency.
If you’re interested in Fly Fishing, try Philadelphia on the Fly: Tales of an Urban Angler.
Bob’s Bait and Tackle in East Falls is filled with helpful folks on both sides of the counter. Be sure to check out the photo gallery when you stop in!
Local resident and musician Dean Ween has a fishing show called The Brownie Troop Fishing Show. You can check out the website with videos and photos here.
For an entertaining historical look at Philadelphia’s watershed and sewer system, there’s no better spot than Phillyh2o.